As more Americans take vaccines from injury into well into their senior years, injuries from vaccines will inevitably follow. An ensuing injury of Guillain Barre syndrome from the flu vaccine is one of the most common claims.

The National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program was established to provide compensation to those individuals who have suffered an illness, disability, injury, or even death from a vaccine. The standard by which the Court of Federal Claims determines a link is known as a preponderance of the evidence. Simply put, is it likely that the injury complained of was in fact caused by the vaccine.

To determine causation in a vaccine injury case, the special master (the term given to what is traditionally the judge in most civil matters) makes a finding of causation based on medical records and / or medical opinion. Simple claims of injury by the complainant or petitioner are not enough to warrant compensation. Besides examining medical and scientific evidence, the special master pays heavy attention to diagnoses or conclusions made by medical professionals regarding causation of the petitioner’s conditions. Medical professionals can also comment on residual long-term effects of the vaccine injury.

In our last blog entry, we discussed elements of the uncontested Bexar County divorce decree. A New Braunfels uncontested divorce lawyer must generally wait at least sixty-one (61) days after the filing of the divorce petition before finalizing the divorce decree. There are exceptions where the waiting time may be reduced if there are instances of family violence. Each county specifies policies for setting the final hearing. It should be noted that some counties do not require physical presence of the parties if the parties execute an affidavit proving up the divorce decree.

Your family lawyer will make sure the prove-up reflects the requirements including living in the county for at least 90 days and in Texas for six (6) months, and whether children are involved.

There are specific closing divorce documents including child support withholding orders through the Texas Attorney General , warranty deeds, qualified domestic relations orders (QDRO), specific tax forms as to the tax treatment of child dependents, name changes, and powers of attorney over vehicles.

In our last blog entry , we discussed the basic elements of a San Antonio and greater Bexar County uncontested divorce . Today, we will discuss what obligations an attorney has when preparing an uncontested divorce. The attorney disciplinary rules do not allow an attorney to represent both parties in an uncontested divorce. The attorney must not lead the unrepresented party to believe that they are representing their interests as well or give them any type of legal advice. An unrepresented party should consider obtaining their own attorney in developing decisions over contested issues.

A San Antonio uncontested divorce lawyer will often ask the unrepresented party to sign a statement in which the party indicates its understanding that the attorney does not represent them. Generally during an uncontested divorce, there is very little discovery of items like community property and finances. The parties should be fairly comfortable about the nature of the opposing parties’ assets and how they would treat custody and possession of children. Often attorneys will ask their clients to sign a waiver of their rights to discovery of the opposing party’s finances. It is crucial that all the marital property is identified and disposed of in the divorce decree.


In drafting the uncontested divorce decree, a San Antonio uncontested divorce attorney assembles basic provisions including language on jurisdiction, grounds for the divorce, and children born of the marriage. The attorney will often discuss critical issues with the parties as they relate to children including, conservatorship, possession, child support, and health insurance. Next, the lawyer focuses on the division of the community estate including assets, taxes, and debts. The divorce decree will confirm separate property ie. property belonging to one spouse only, usually property acquired before the marriage. Other divorce issues include name change, permanent injunctions, status of temporary orders, and court costs. In an uncontested divorce, the attorney will make sure the other side agrees and acknowledges the terms of the divorce. Sometimes, the divorce decree will direct the parties to execute certain documents like warranty deeds so that property may be easily transferred.

In our last blog entry, we touched base on some fundamentals of a San Antonio uncontested divorce . Keep in mind that a Bexar County uncontested divorce attorney will generally charge a flat fee with a separate flat fee for a Qualified Domestic Relations Order (QDRO) and military retirement DRO.

In initiating a divorce in Bexar County, the attorney will often ask the client to complete an inventory appraisement. Many couples often approach me with the statement, “This is a simple divorce – we have no community property.” That may very well be true, but an inventory appraisement is often needed just to get the parties thinking about what property they have accumulated during the course of the marriage. Sometimes, there are assets (or debts) that the parties have not considered and it is important to have a frank discussion about assets and debt division. Generally, joint bank accounts should be discontinued and divided. Notes on vehicles and other property should be taken out of both names, and joint credit cards should be cancelled or put in only one spouse’ name.

So as not to cause unnecessary issues, the grounds for divorce in a Bexar County uncontested divorce is often irreconcilable differences, the general “no fault” provision. Attorney fees are generally not requested. The petition for divorce is accompanied by a waiver of service. With the signed waiver, there is no need for the other party to file an Answer to the petition – submission of the waiver constitutes an appearance and for all intents and purposes, a default answer. A party can elect not to receive notice of any further proceedings – most people elect to get notice, but if they have a good relationship with the attorney, it is not necessary as I will explain later.

These days, due to financial concerns, many couples and families are pursuing the route of uncontested divorce. Families also want to avoid the long drawn out process that can often accompany divorce and the adversarial nature of the proceedings.

In some cases, an uncontested divorce can be a strong option especially if the parties can agree on major issues like division of community property, child custody, and child support. That being said, it is often ill-advised to try to do an uncontested divorce without a lawyer. A San Antonio uncontested divorce lawyer can assist you with processing the paperwork and obtaining a timely divorce without unnecessary delays and additional fees.


In an uncontested divorce, there is one attorney. The parties have agreed to all if not most of the issues, and the unrepresented party agrees to a waiver of service, which is prepared by the attorney. The waiver of service helps the parties save on processing fees and the other party is given a copy of the divorce petition and given the choice of whether they want notice of any additional hearings. The attorney can also help the parties save on filing fees by petitioning the court for a waiver of fees if the party qualifies based on economic hardship.

In a San Antonio divorce case, many disputes center on whether marital property is separate or community property. Marital property often takes on a strictly community or separate nature, or hybrid of separate and community property. The question as to whether marital property is community, separate, or a hybrid mixture is often answered at the ‘inception of title’ phase. The inception of title is dependent on when the party acquired a right of claim to the property. A party that owned property before the date of marriage would have an inception of title before marriage and would have his or her own separate property.

Property acquired during marriage is classified as community property. There are several exceptions to this general rule such as when the property is bequeathed as a gift or inheritance. Property whose inception of title occurred after the end of marriage is not part of the marital estate. Sometimes property is acquired in another state and would be considered community property. The court also has special rules for property acquired in another state that would be considered separate property.


Any property in the possession of a spouse during the dissolution of the marriage is assumed to be community property unless a spouse can show otherwise through clear and convincing evidence. A judge and jury often make decisions as to how property shall be characterized. There are certain situation where due to commingling , it becomes impossible to determine the nature of the marital property, and in such cases, the property is treated as community property. A sale of separate property does not change its inherent nature. Nor does a natural increase or decrease in value change the nature of the property.

In our last blog entry, we discussed basic temperature issues with the Intoxilyzer 5000. The machine possesses a so-called electronic “eye” that searches for alcohol molecules in the breath sample. The data is sent to a microprocessor which then extrapolates the amount of alcohol content based on two hundred ten (210) liters of air. Remember that the basic formula is an alcohol concentration of 0.080 in 100 milliliters of blood which is supposed to correlate to 210 liters of breath – i.e. a BrAC formula of 0.080 g / 210L . Of course, the machine is nowhere near 210 liters and in fact the sampling chamber inside of the machine only fits 81 milliliters of air – less than the size of soda can.

The microprocessor contains a computer program, but the technical supervisor knows nothing about the actual program. CMI, the manufacturer of the Intoxilyzer 5000, hold the program as a trade secret. When CMI delivers the Intoxylizer to the technical supervisor, the computer program is already on the machine and technical supervisor cannot access the program. Nor is the program ever updated such as we typically expect for GPS or other programs that get internet updates. Once the technical supervisor takes possession of the machine, there is an assumption that the mathematical program used to calculate the breath alcohol concentration is accurate. A San Antonio DWI lawyer would point out to a jury that he cannot employ an independent computer expert to verify the accuracy of the program – that is a distinct advantage for the State and one that should make jurors wonder. If the manufacturer is the only entity that knows anything about the computer code and there can be inherent problems with computers, jurors will wonder.


The next key issue is a scientific principle known as retrograde extrapolation. According to Texas DUI law , the DA has to prove the driver was intoxicated at the time of driving. Yet the test on the breath machine reflects a breath alcohol concentration at the time of the breath test, not at the time of driving. Adding up all the time for the actual stop, conducting the field sobriety tests , the arrest, hauling away the driver’s vehicle, transport time to the precinct, reading of Miranda warnings, and the fifteen (15) minute observation period, more often than not at least an hour has passed from the time of driving until administration of the breath test. The passage of time then begs the question as to what was the breath alcohol concentration at the time of driving.

In our last blog entry we discussed mistakes breath test operators make during the administration of a DWI breath test . In this blog entry we will discuss other temperature issues involved with the Intoxylizer which a San Antonio DWI lawyer can exploit to create reasonable doubt.

The basic premise of the Intoxylizer is that its results are based on the average temperature of a person – 98.5 degrees Fahrenheit. Yet many people’s average temperature vary by a few degrees higher or lower than this number. So theoretically, if the driver’s core base temperature is greater than 98.5 degrees Fahrenheit, then the Intoxilyzer will yield a test result that is greater than the true measure of the breath alcohol concentration (BrAC). More often than not, the operators do not take the driver’s initial temperature and record it so they can make adjustments off the test results.

In fact, if the case is a Bexar County DWI matter and the breath result was taken in the San Antonio Magistrate’s office, there would be a medical professional present at all times who can take the driver’s temperature and it would not be difficult.

In our last blog entry, we discussed the variance on breath test results for the Intoxilyzer 5000 and how a breath test result of .089 should raise the question of reasonable doubt.

The results on breath alcohol concentration can be affected if there is any alcohol in the mouth. The guidelines require a fifteen (15) minute time period of observation to make sure the mouth is cleared of alcohol. In addition, alcohol in the stomach can get into the mouth if the person belches. That is why if at any time a person belches during the fifteen (15) minute period before giving a breath sample, the person must wait another fifteen minutes before giving a sample.


A strong San Antonio DWI lawyer defense tactic is to query the breath test operator as to whether he keeps a log sheet reflecting the beginning of the observation period and whether that time matches with the time listed on the records. Yet more often than not in Bexar county and surrounding counties, there is no real procedure to reflect when the observation period commences.

In our last blog entry, we discussed how an Intoxilyzer 5000 has to detect a minute amount of alcohol in a breath sample without error. A Floresville criminal defense attorney must highlight the weaknesses in the machine’s accuracy.

Specifically, the test results from the machine are + / – 0.010. A test sample can be off by 0.010 under the Texas Administrative Code . We discussed that the test sample should be 0.080 but in reality, the sample can range between 0.070 and 0.090 and still be considered reliable.

The strongest cases are where the breath sample is between 0.080 and 0.089. If the accuracy rating is + / – 0.10, then the breath sample can be off by 0.010 . Thus, a breath sample was 0.087, then theoretically, the true result could very well be 0.077. Theoretically , the State can argue that the accuracy variation of + / – 0.010 means a breath result of 0.088 could be 0.098. However, that type of variation is further evidence that this machine does not possess the precision it claims.

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